The Mindanao Journal of Science and Technology (MJST) aims to promote original researches in science and technology (S&T) and S & T – related studies in the Philippines. Contributions from foreign authors are also welcome. It also aims to disseminate researches, good practices and innovations in science and technology to their prime audience including educators, researchers and industry practitioners and policy makers. Areas of studies include biological sciences (biology, zoology, botany, and agriculture), engineering and architecture (mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, environmental engineering, computer engineering and architecture) and other related studies in engineering and technology. It further aims to provide avenue through which experts and scientists in the scientific and technological fields share and discuss their high quality researches. Contributions shall be in English. Manuscripts should be proofread and have English language errors corrected before submission as English of poor quality and clarity is a major cause of rejection or delay in acceptance.